State of Innovation

Patents and Innovation Economics

The Pseudo Scientific Basis of Environmentalism

The underlying “scientific” basis for all environmentalism is the second law of thermodynamics or entropy.  Environmentalist believe that entropy scientifically proves that we have peak oil problem, an over-population problem, a pollution problem, global warming and the myriad of other things environmentalist believe need to be fixed.  It provides the moral basis for their argument that government must force people to quit using their cars, pro-creating, using ‘fossil fuels’, hydraulic fracturing, pesticides, irrigating, etc.  According to environmentalists it also proves that technology can never solve these problems and the only solution is for humans to abandon technology and live in a “state of nature.”  Entropy provides them the moral and scientific high ground in any debate and justifies any government intrusion into the private lives of people, including killing them.

Entropy causes things to become disordered according to environmentalists.  One paper explains it this way:

Things fall apart because it’s the Law: the Second Law of Thermodynamics also referred to as the Law of Entropy. Everything disintegrate, degenerate, shatter, fracture, split, tear, break up, break down, break, rust, die, decay, wear out, rip, or move from a state of order to disorder; not unless new energy is infused for regular maintenance and rebuilding of its structure.[1]

The paper further explains, “Left unchecked, entropy will eliminate all life forms by randomizing vital life-sustaining molecules.”  Jermy Rifkin, a leading environmentalist, has written a whole book about entropy, which argues that we need to use fewer resources to forestall the inevitable collapse of civilization.  The most extreme version of this idea is called the Heat Death of the Universe, which states that the Universe will end up with a uniform temperature and uniform distribution of matter.  Human’s are accelerating this process, according to the environmentalists and the more humans there are and the more energy they use the faster this is accelerated.  Their answer is fewer humans and less technology.  I wondered how they would tie entropy to anthropomorphic global warming (AGW) their favorite crisis right now.  One paper entitled Entropy and Global Warming I, explains the connection this way.

Population Growth and intense per capita energy consumption may be seen to be at the root of virtually all of the world’s environmental problems. Global Warming, Depletion of Ozone Layer, Air Pollution, Ground Water Depletion, Chemical Risks, Pesticide Residue in Crops and in Fish.[2]

It appears that the tie between entropy and AGW is over-population.

When I point out that environmentalists are anti-human most people think either I am wrong or that I am exaggerating.  But consider the following examples.

  • A leading environmentalist, Dr. Eric R. Pianka advocated the elimination of 90 percent of Earth’s population by airborne Ebola in front of few hundred members of the Texas Academy of Science who rose to their feet, and gave him a standing ovation.[3]  Dr. Pianka attempted to deny this, but the evidence was overwhelming including his student evaluations.
  • The DDT ban resulted in the death of over 100 million people.  Alexander King, founder of the Malthusian Club of Rome, wrote in a biographical essay in 1990: “My own doubts came when DDT was introduced. In Guyana, within two years, it had almost eliminated malaria. So my chief quarrel with DDT, in hindsight, is that it has greatly added to the population problem.”  http://jiminmontana.wordpress.com/2012/01/15/environmentalism-the-green-religion-of-dehumanization/.
  • Dr. Charles Wurster, one of the major opponents of DDT, is reported to have said, “People are the cause of all the problems. We have too many of them. We need to get rid of some of them, and this (referring to malaria deaths) is as good a way as any.”  http://jiminmontana.wordpress.com/2012/01/15/environmentalism-the-green-religion-of-dehumanization/.
  • “A total population of 250-300 million people, a 95% decline from present levels, would be ideal,” Turner stated in 1996.[4]

Environmentalist killed over 100 million people in the 20th Century – but they won’t be satisfied until they have killed at least another 5 billion people.

 

ENVIRONMENTALISTS ARE EVIL

 

Marxists seem to be the main people who are pointing out that Environmentalists do not understand entropy.  For instance, the paper The Limits to Entropy: the Continuing Misuse of Thermodynamics in Environmental and Marxist theory points out some of these errors.[5]  This paper ends with the terrifying thought “The appropriation of misleading entropy concepts by Marxists is particularly unhelpful, since Marxist theory should be a guide for red-green political practice.”  Another paper that disagrees with this entropy apocalypse is by the renown economist Julian L. Simon, entitled ENTROPY AND ENERGY ACCOUNTING:  ARE THEY RELEVANT CONCEPTS?

Entropy in science is the energy in a system that cannot be used to do work and the second law of thermodynamics states that in an ISOLATED SYSTEM entropy always increases or stays the same.  Entropy says nothing about order.  In fact, crystalline structures have high entropy but are very ordered.  A common example to explain this is provided by the article Entropy is Not Disorder, by Nathaniel Virgo.

Imagine filling a glass jar with water and cooking oil.  Give it a good shake: the oil is now interspersed with the water.  It’s an opaque, homogeneous mess. Very disordered. But now, leave the jar on the table for a few minutes.  In the parlance of thermodynamics, this is a closed system (more or less — we can safely ignore the various ways in which it isn’t), so its entropy must increase over time.  But as we watch, the oil separates from the water, forming a nice, orderly layer on top of it.  The system, to the eye at least, appears to have become less disordered even as its entropy increased.

As a result, all the statements about entropy leading to disorder by environmentalist are just so much nonsense.  In addition, the Earth is not an isolated system.  An isolated system is one in which there is no energy or matter exchange occurs.  Earth receives enormous amounts of energy from the Sun and exchanges it with the surrounding space.  It also exchanges matter with space.  Since gravity affects almost any system, almost no system can be consider isolated.  The Universe might be an isolated system, but new theories about multiple universes, multiple dimensions, and that the Universe is likely infinite cast serious doubt on this.  What this means is that Environmentalists supposed moral and scientific high ground is without any basis in fact.  How anyone who advocate mass murder can be considered to have the moral high ground escapes me.

It is not surprising that environmentalist make these mistakes as most of them do not have a solid background in physics or chemistry.  For instance, Jermy Rifkin, has a BA in economics and a MA in International Affairs.

 

Environmentalist Do Not Understand Entropy

Their Conclusions are Nonsense

They are Advocating and Implementing MASS MURDER Based on this Misinterpretation of Entropy

 


[1] Maharaj. Dr. Indar, ENTROPY:THE IMPACT OF A LOW-ENTROPY LIFE ON THE ENVIRONMENT

Live Simply that Others may Simply Live, https://sites.google.com/a/greenthinktank.org/greentt/mainmission/entropy

 

[2] Entropy and Global Warming I, by Dr. Mofiz Uddin Ahmed, http://www.newstoday.com.bd/index.php?option=details&news_id=2333010&date=2013-01-01

[3] Meeting Doctor Doom, By Forrest M. Mims, III, The Eco-Logic Powerhouse http://www.freedom.org/board/articles/mims-506.html.

[4] Ted Turner Repeats Call For Population Curb, by Paul Joseph Watson Prison Planet Monday, April 28, 2008 http://www.prisonplanet.com/articles/april2008/042808_ted_turner.htm

[5] The Limits to Entropy: the Continuing Misuse of Thermodynamics in Environmental and Marxist theory (PDF version))2008, Science & Society v. 72, No.1, 43-62.  By David Schwartzman, http://www.redandgreen.org/Documents/Limits%20to%20entropy%20final.htm

Advertisements

January 31, 2013 Posted by | Blog | , , , , , , , , , | 4 Comments

The Science of Economic Growth: Part 1

This is a multi-part post on the science of economic growth.  Standard economic theory has failed miserably to define the source of economic growth, which means it is impossible for it to provide rational policies to restore economic growth.  This series of posts defines a scientific theory of the source of economic growth.

 

Part 1 

Part 2 

Part 3 

Part 4 

Part 5 

Introduction

Since economics is the study of how man meets his needs, the paper will first examine the nature of man.  Man is like other life forms in that he is subject to laws of evolution.  Evolution is the result of entropy.  However, it is not absolute entropy but what is defined herein as biological entropy that controls life forms.  The paper starts with an examination of biological entropy. 

Every species has unique features that allow it to compete in its evolutionary struggle.  Homo Sapiens ’ unique feature is their ability to use their rational mind to alter their environment or invent.  If humans did not invent, then the study of economics would be the study of human evolution.

The defining condition of most life is that it exists in the Malthusian Trap, which is the forcing function of evolution.  An important question is whether humans can escape the Malthusian Trap.  The Malthusian Trap is the result of biological entropy, which implies diminishing returns.  Escaping the Malthusian Trap requires humans to overcome diminishing returns.  Whether humans can invent their way out of diminishing returns is explored.

The paper shows that the answer to this question is that it depends.  If large groups of humans invent quickly enough, then humans can permanently escape the Malthusian Trap.  However, it is clear that in a technological stagnant environment, humans will eventually fall back into the Malthusian Trap.  This leads to more mainstream economic questions, such as whether inventing is endogenous or exogenous?  The paper shows that it is clear that inventing is endogenous.  Another more mainstream economic question that is examined is whether dissemination of new technologies is inhibited by property rights in inventions?  This question logically leads to the question of whether perfect competition or monopolistic competition encourages economic growth?  The paper shows that incentives are not only necessary for the creation of new technologies, but for the dissemination of new technologies and that perfect competition destroys technology creation.

These ideas are then applied to an understanding of the Industrial Revolution, which was the first time that large groups of humans escaped the Malthusian Trap.  It is shown that the Industrial Revolution, which was really a constant invention machine, occurred because of specific incentives for ordinary people to invent.

Finally, given the central role of invention to economics the paper examines whether there are any natural laws that apply to inventions.  Six natural laws of invention are presented.

 

How Does Entropy Apply to Life?

Life requires energy to exist because of entropy.  Otherwise a living organism could just not expend energy and it would live forever.  This setups a struggle between organisms and between species for energy sources, which forms the basis of evolution.  According to Peter A. Corning in “Thermoeconomics:

Beyond The Second Law” the idea that evolution and entropy are related has been long recognized.[1]  This connection has been espoused by Jean Baptiste de Lamarck, Herbert Spencer, Ludwig Boltzmann, Alfred Lotka, and Erwin Schrödinger, in his book What is Life?[2]  However, Corning warns us about confusing energy entropy, information entropy, and physical order.  Keeping this in mind, we need to define entropy in a consistent manner.  As used herein entropy does not mean information entropy or physical order or strictly energy entropy, which I will call absolute entropy.  Entropy means biologic entropy or the ability of an organism or a species to extract useful energy from their surroundings.  While this is related to absolute entropy in that it is about extracting useful energy, what matters in biology is the organism’s ability to extract energy from its environment to sustain its life not the absolute amount of useful energy available.  For instance, a buffalo (Bison) standing on a vein of coal in an open pit mine is surrounded by useful energy or low absolute entropy.  However, the buffalo cannot turn the coal into useful energy for itself and if there is not any grass or sage around, it is an area of high biological entropy for a buffalo.  Let’s explore this idea of biological entropy in more detail.  When a bison dies it has not reached a point of maximum absolute entropy, its carcass may still provide useful energy for vultures, mountain lions, and people.  Despite this, the bison’s biological entropy has reached a maximum, meaning its biological entropy has increased to a level that it no longer is alive.

On an individual organism level I define maximum biological entropy as the point at which the organism dies.  Many things can cause the entropy of an individual organism to reach it maximum and organisms use a variety of mechanisms to overcome biological entropy.  Plants create useful energy by photosynthesis.  They convert carbon dioxide into sugars (energy) using light.  They use this energy to reduce their biological entropy.  Animals eat plants or other animals and use the energy to reduce their biological entropy.  Note that when animals eat plants or other animals, they are increasing the biological entropy of the plants and animals they eat.  Thus, there are two general mechanisms that increase the biological entropy of life forms: internal and external.  Internal mechanisms are those that result from the failure to consume enough calories (energy) and aging.  Animals require oxygen, water, and food, in that order, to survive.[3]  Without oxygen, the animal cannot oxidize enough sugar (fat, protein) to survive – overcome biological entropy.  Without water, the animal’s cells are unable to absorb energy and expel wastes.[4]  Aging is a process of increasing biological entropy.  This is caused at least in part by disorder in genetic information.[5]  This genetic disorder results in the organism not being able to create enough useful energy to survive or increasing the amount of energy necessary to survive.  External mechanisms include being eaten or attacked by other living organisms, diseases, accidents (for animals), and the elements.

In general, living organisms use energy to overcome biological entropy first and then to increase their size.  However, some animals also create simple shelters or seek shelter to ward off the biological entropy increasing effects of the elements and predators.  Rain, sun, hail, snow, heat, and cold all contribute to the increase in biological entropy of living organisms.  Life has two main methods of overcoming the effects of the biological entropy: 1) food (energy) consumption and 2) shelter creation (inhabitation).

A species of life becomes extinct when the species as a whole reaches a certain level of biological entropy either because it cannot consume enough energy or because external mechanisms increase its biological entropy to reach the extinction level.  The biological entropy level at which a species becomes extinct is the maximum biological entropy for the species.  A species reaches the Malthusian Trap when increases in population of the species results in the total required energy (food) to support the population being greater than the supply of food.  Most life forms exist in the Malthusian Trap, most of the time, including humans until the Industrial Revolution.

 

Evolution

It is widely known that Malthus’s Essay on the Principles of Population influenced Charles Darwin and shaped his ideas on evolution.  Darwin himself recorded in his 1876 autobiography the following:

In October 1838, that is, fifteen months after I had begun my systematic enquiry, I happened to read for amusement ‘Malthus on Population’, and being well prepared to appreciate the struggle for existence which everywhere goes on from long-continued observation of the habits of animals and plants, it at once struck me that under these circumstances favourable variations would tend to be preserved, and unfavourable ones to be destroyed. The results of this would be the formation of a new species. Here, then I had at last got a theory by which to work.[6]

Evolution is then a way of selecting species or variations on species that have low biological entropy and causing those species with high biological entropy to go extinct.  The limited amount of food (energy) for each species ensures that evolution is a dynamic ongoing process.  The variations are the result of sexual recombination of the parent’s genes and mutations in the organism’s genes.  The unique feature of humans is that they alter their environment to fit their needs, they do not just rely on genetic variations that allow them to better adapt to their environment.  The way humans do this is by inventing, which will discuss more in the next section.

 


[1] Corning, Peter A., Thermoeconomics:

Beyond The Second Law, Journal of Bioeconomics, Journal of Bioeconomics, Vol. 4, No. 1. (1 January 2002), pp. 57-88, p. 58.

[2] Ibid

[3] There are few exotic life forms that do not need oxygen, but all require energy to overcome entropy.

[4] BNET, Physiological Effects of Dehydration: Cure Pain and Prevent Cancer, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0ISW/is_2001_August/ai_78177228/, 10/6/10.

[5] Hayflick, Leonard, Entropy Explains Aging, Genetic Determinism Explains Longevity, and Undefined Terminology Explains Misunderstanding Both, PLoS Genetics, http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.0030220, 10/7/10.

[6] The Autobiography of Charles Darwin, location 680-686, by Charles Darwin (Mar 17, 2006) – Kindle eBook

 

December 20, 2011 Posted by | -Economics, Innovation | , , , , , | 13 Comments

Toward a Hard Science Approach to Economics – 1

It is the premise of this post that economics is objective and therefore can be a hard science[1], based on empirical observation, logic, and reason.  Some clear objective results in economics include that failure of a person to produce (consume) enough food results in starvation and death.  It does not matter how much someone feels or believes (or has faith) that they should not have to produce (consume) enough calories, they will starve to death.  There is overwhelming empirical evidence for this proposition, including the purposeful starvation of numerous people by totalitarian governments in the last century.  Another example is that if the government raises the cost (or reduces the return) of performing an activity, you will have less of this activity than would have occurred without the government interference, as long as you have statistically large enough group.  For instance, if a government raises the cost of food or reduces the return for producing food enough people starve.  The empirical evidence includes numerous African countries that have held the cost of food below the cost of production and this inevitably results in mass starvation.  This is true no matter how much faith the government has that it should not occur, or how much they feel it will not occur, or how much they believe it should not occur.  Similarly, a person can deny the existence of gravity, but gravity will act on the person no matter what they believe about gravity.  Gravity is not a matter of belief, it is a matter of understanding.  It is clear that at least some of the laws of economics are as immutable as the laws of gravity.

All science is based on certain fundamental empirical observations.  One of these fundamental observations is that reality is objective.  This means that reality exists independent of any persons’ belief, hope, faith, or desire.  The evidence for this proposition is overwhelming and includes all the incredible advances in physics, chemistry, biology, geology and the applied sciences (engineering).

 

Fundamental Observation: Reality is Objective[2]


The second fundamental observation of science is that reality is understandable or discoverable using observation, logic, and reason.  In science, we follow logic and reason even if it seems counterintuitive.  For instance, the implications of special and general relativity predict that clocks on GPS (Global Position Satellites) will run at a different rate than clocks on earth.[3] This appears counterintuitive, but empirical evidence shows that this is true and that failure to account for this difference will result in meaningful navigational errors.

 

Fundamental Observation: reality is understandable or discoverable using observation, logic, and reason

 

If economics is going to be a science, it must be based on these two fundamental observations/assumptions.  Some people may object that science is based on observations.  It has been shown that all logical systems are based on either an observation or an assumption, in the case of mathematics.  For instance, Euclidean geometry is based on the assumption that a line goes on forever and two parallel lines never intersect.  Spherical geometry is not based on these assumptions.  It assumes that a line will wrap around on itself.  In science we do not arbitrarily pick the starting point, we base them on observations.  Unfortunately, the science of economics is in the same state as physics before Newton.

Life is a fight against entropy, the second law of thermodynamics.  Entropy is normally defined as the measure of the disorder of a system.  Entropy was discovered as part of thermodynamics (statistical mechanics) and it explains that a perpetual motion machine is impossible.  Entropy always increases in a closed system.  Luckily for us, the Earth is not a closed system.  For instance, we receive energy from the Sun.  The only way to increase order is by the input of energy.  Life represents increasing order and therefore just to sustain life at its present level requires energy to overcome entropy.  Edwin Schrödinger, Nobel Prize winning physicist, proposed this in his 1944 book, What is Life.[4]

 

Fundamental Observation: Life is a fight against entropy

 

Plants create this energy by photosynthesis.  They convert carbon dioxide into sugars (energy) using light.  They use this energy to create order.  Animals eat plants or other animals and use the energy to create order.  Note that when animals eat plants or other animals, they are increasing the disorder of the plants and animals they eat.  Thus, there are two general mechanisms which increase the entropy of life forms: 1) internal and 2) external.  Internal mechanisms are those that result from the failure to consume enough calories (energy) and aging.  Animals require oxygen, water, and food in that order to survive.  Without oxygen, the animal cannot oxidize enough sugar (fat, protein) to survive – overcome entropy.  Without water, the animal’s cells are unable to absorb energy and expel wastes.[5] As a result, the animal does not receive sufficient energy to overcome entropy.  Aging is a process of increasing disorder – entropy.  This disorder is caused at least in part by disorder in genetic information.[6] External mechanisms include being eaten or attacked by other living organisms, diseases, accidents (for animals), and the elements.

In general, living organisms use energy to overcome entropy first and then to increase their size.  However, some animals also create simple shelters or seek shelter to ward off the entropy increasing effects of the elements and predators.  Rain, sun, hail, snow, heat, or cold all contribute to the increase in entropy of living organisms (disorder).  A living organism dies when its entropy increases above a certain level.  Life has two main methods of overcoming the effects of the second law of thermodynamics: 1) food consumption and 2) shelter creation (inhabitation).

A species of life becomes extinct when the species as a whole reaches a certain level of entropy either because it cannot consume enough energy or because external mechanisms increase its entropy to the extinction level.  A species reaches the Malthusian Trap when increases in population of the species results in the total required energy (food) to support the population is greater than supply of food.  Total available energy is less than the energy required to overcome the total entropy of the species population.  Most life forms exist in the Malthusian Trap, including humans until the Industrial Revolution.

Homo sapiens also consume food and create shelter to overcome the effects of entropy.  Unlike other living organisms, homo sapiens also organize their environment to minimize the effects of entropy.  For instance, humans have invented agriculture to increase their supply of food (energy) and therefore order.  Humans also harnessed the physical strength of animals, created internal combustion machines, electric lights, electricity, washing machines, tractors, computers, the internet, email, lasers, fiber optics, etc.  All of these are inventions.  Humans alter their environment by creating inventions.  This is different from every other animal.  This should not surprising, since the distinguishing characteristic of homo sapiens is their ability to reason.  Man is a rational animal according to Aristotle’s classical definition.[7] Being rational is the distinguishing characteristic of humans.  Man uses his reason to alter his environment (invent) and increase order for himself.  Invention is the unique way in which man is able to create order – this is the fundamental observation of economics.

 

Fundamental Observation of Economics: Man’s unique ability to increases order (wealth) is his                                              ability to invent.

 

Inventing first results in the increased success of the species.  Homo sapiens populated most of the world in less than 500,000 years because of this unique ability.  As long as the rate of technological progress is slower than the growth in population, man is stuck in the Malthusian Trap.  Sometime around 1800 in Europe and the United States, the rate of invention exceeds the rate of growth in population and man escapes the Malthusian Trap at least in the West.  When man escapes, he is no longer subject to biological evolution.  As far as we know, homo sapiens are the only species to ever escape the Malthusian Trap.

Trade enhances man’s ability to invent.  By trading the products of each others’ inventions both trading partners can specialize in the inventions and both end up wealthier.  David Ridardo explained how both parties are better off because of trade using the example of England trading cloth for Portuguese wine:

England may be so circumstanced, that to produce the cloth may require the labour of 100 men for one year; and if she attempted to make the wine, it might require the labour of 120 men for the same time.  England would therefore find it in her interest to import wine, and to purchase it by the exportation of cloth.  To produce the win in Portugal, might require only the labour of 80 men for one year, and to produce the cloth in the same country, might require the labour of 90 men for the same time.  It would therefore be advantageous for her to export wine in exchange for cloth.  This exchange might even take place, notwithstanding that the commodity imported by Portugal could be produced with less labour than in England.[8]

Using the example above if England produces twice as much cloth as it needs, it has invested 200 man hours.  If Portugal produces twice as much wine as it needs it has invested 160 man hours.  Now if England and Portugal trade their excess cloth for the excess wine, England has invested 200 man hours for all its cloth and wine, while Portugal has invested 160 man hours for all its cloth and wine.  If England had produced both all its cloth and all its wine locally, then it would have invested 220 man hours for the same goods.  This means that England requires 10% more man hours if it does not trade.  If Portugal had produced both all its cloth and all it wine locally, then it would have invested 170 man hours for the same goods.  This means that Portugal requires 6.25% more man hours if it does not trade.

Trade is a rational activity and humans are the only animals to engage in trade of non-like items and trade between non-related individuals.[9] Classical economics has focused on trade and the related supply and demand curves instead of the role of invention in economics.  This might have occurred because the beginning of classical economics was in reaction to the Mercantile system and its limitations on trade.  Adam Smith’s book, The Wealth of Nations, is often seen as a refutation of the Mercantile system.  Matt Ridley, in his book, The Rational Optimist, has suggested that trade is the key to creating wealth.  This emphasis on trade has been misplaced.  Invention proceeds trade.  If everyone produces the same thing, then there is no reason to trade.  It is only because someone has invented a new product that trade becomes a rational choice.  For instance, one group of people may have invented a process for skinning animals and using them as clothing.  They may have traded this with people who had access to flint and invented a system for making simple axes.  Invention has to proceed production, which has to proceed trade logically.  Of course, without trade the value of invention is severely diminished.


[1] Hard science, such as physics, chemistry, and biology, as opposed to “soft science”, such as psychology, sociology, and political science.  In general, soft sciences are not science at all.  For instance, Freud’s formulation of the id, ego, and super ego is not science.  This formulation is not testable and is not based on objective empirical evidence.  In fairness, psychology to the extent it is based on neurobiological processes is real science.  The first step in any science is categorization and psychology has attempted to categorize various behaviors.  Unfortunately, many of these categorizations are too vague to be testable or objective.  As we have gained more information some formally vague definitions have become objective.  Political science is not a science it is a study of politics.  Sociology also has no basis in science.  This is not to say that there is no value to studying politics or the interaction of groups.  History and literature do not call themselves a science, but there is great value in the study of history and literature.  History even uses science to discover new facts about history, but it is not a science.  The soft sciences use the nomenclature of science to aggrandize themselves.  This propaganda has undermined the value of science in the eyes of the general public.

[2] Even the bizarre results of quantum mechanics are repeatable and independent of the observer’s hopes, desires, faith, opinion.

[3] Real-World Relativity: The GPS Navigation System, http://www.astronomy.ohio-state.edu/~pogge/Ast162/Unit5/gps.html, October 3, 2010.

[5] BNET, Physiological Effects of Dehydration: Cure Pain and Prevent Cancer, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0ISW/is_2001_August/ai_78177228/, 10/6/10.

[6] Hayflick, Leonard, Entropy Explains Aging, Genetic Determinism Explains Longevity, and Undefined Terminology Explains Misunderstanding Both, PLoS Genetics, http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.0030220, 10/7/10.

[7] The Philosophy of Aristotle, Adventures in Philosophy  http://radicalacademy.com/philaristotle4.htm, 10/7/10.

[8] Ridley, Matt, The Rational Optimist: How Prosperity Evolves, Haper Collins, New York, 2010, p. 75.

[9] Ridley, Matt, The Rational Optimist: How Prosperity Evolves, Haper Collins, New York, 2010, p. 56.

 

October 10, 2010 Posted by | -Economics, -History, Innovation | , , , | Leave a comment