# State of Innovation

## The Greenhouse Effect does Not Exist: The Scientific Fallacy Underlying the Whole Anthropomorphic Global Warming Story

Anthropomorphic Global Warming (AGW) is based on the greenhouse effect.  Here is how the greenhouse effect is explained.  The Earth is modeled as a blackbody.  A blackbody is an object that absorbs all the radiation that impinges on it and does not reflect any light.  Such a body in thermal equilibrium will emit what is called blackbody radiation.  The Stefan–Boltzmann law can be used to determine the temperature of a blackbody.  Specifically it states that the power emitted per unit area of the surface of a black body is directly proportional to the fourth power of its absolute temperature.

I = σT4 or rearranged  T = (I/σ)1/4

I is in watts per meter squared

T is the temperature in Kelvin

σ is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant (5.670367(13)×10−8 W⋅m−2⋅K−4)

here is website that will do the calculation for you http://byjus.com/stefan-boltzmann-law-calculator/

The greenhouse effect then assumes that Earth is in thermal equilibrium with the Sun and therefore the total radiative (electromagnetic) energy received from the Sun less what is reflected must equal the blackbody radiation from the Earth.  The greenhouse effect hypothesis recognizes that the Earth only receives solar energy over half its surface, however it radiates over its whole surface area.  Because of this the greenhouse effect hypothesis spreads the solar radiation over the whole surface of the Earth.

I = Is x πR2/(4πR2) = 343 W/m2

Is – is the solar radiation hitting the Earth and is 1370 W/m2

R is the radius of the Earth in meters

Since clouds, the atmosphere, and the ground reflect some of the light, which is called albedo, this Intensity level is further reduced by 30% or 240 W/m2.  This intensity is put into the Stefan-Boltzman equation and returns a temperature of 255°K, which is negative -18°C or about 0° Fahrenheit.  Based on this analysis it is clear that something else must be happening, because the Earth’s average temperature[1] is around 16°C (60° F).  This makes a very convincing argument for some sort of greenhouse effect.  After all we have all walked into a greenhouse on a cold day and noticed how much warmer it is than the outside temperature.

According to the greenhouse effect the reason Earth is at 16°C instead of -18°C is because of the heat absorbing components of our atmosphere.  These greenhouse gases reflect the infrared light emitted from the Earth, thus trapping this extra energy.

Or here is a more technical diagram.

If you want to see the math associated with this model, you can find it in Chapter 7.3 of Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry, by Daniel J. Jacob, Princeton University Press, 1999.

Without this greenhouse effect the Earth would be very cold according to its advocates.  I have to admit that I found these arguments convincing.

Before I explain the errors in the above analysis, here is something that should cast a little doubt that the above analysis makes sense.  The moon is about the same distance from the Sun as Earth and its temperature varies from 106°C during the day to -173°C during the night.  Note that there appears to be some variation of opinion on the temperatures of the moon, but 106°C appears to be on the low side.  Since the moon is essentially the same distance from the Sun the solar irradiance (energy) is about the same as the Earth receives.  The moon has essentially no atmosphere, its atmospheric pressure is around 3×10−15 atm, which means it has an atmospheric pressure that is around a 1000 trillion times less than Earth.  Since the moon has almost no atmosphere there is nothing on the moon to trap the blackbody radiation from the surface of the moon and therefor the moon’s temperature ought to be close to the -18°C that is calculated by the greenhouse effect for Earth with a small variation for having a different albedo.  If we assumed that the moon was perfect black body, using the greenhouse effect method of calculating the surface temperature, the moon’s surface temperature would be about 5°C.  Way off from the observed 106°C or higher.

The empirically data from the moon shows that something is awry with the greenhouse explanation for the temperature of Earth.  The first mistake in the greenhouse explanation is spreading the solar radiation over the whole surface of the Earth.

I = Is x πR2/(4πR2)

The Earth does radiate out over its whole surface and the total energy of electromagnetic emissions from the Earth has to equal the total energy of the electromagnetic emissions absorbed by the Earth or its temperature would be increasing (decreasing).  None of this justifies setting the emissions equal to each other over the whole Earth.  On the sunny side of the Earth it absorbs net energy and on the dark side of the Earth it emits net energy.  This is why the night time temperatures are lower than the day time temperatures.  The greenhouse model assumes that the temperature of the Earth is uniform (same during the day and night).  This mistake also occurs because the greenhouse hypothesis assumes Earth is in thermal equilibrium with the Sun which is a condition for the blackbody radiation calculations.  Again this would require the Earth surface to have a uniform temperature (day, night, poles, equator), which is clearly nonsense.

The second big mistake of the greenhouse effect analysis is misunderstanding heat transfer.  “The direction of heat transfer is from a region of high temperature to another region of lower temperature.”[2]  “The three fundamental modes of heat transfer are conduction, convection and radiation. Heat transfer, the flow of energy in the form of heat, is a process by which a system’s internal energy is changed.”[3]  According to the greenhouse effect analysis, somehow the cold atmosphere is warming up the hotter surface of the Earth, which violates the second law of thermodynamics.  The atmosphere near the Earth gets colder with altitude.  It does not exceed the Earth’s temperature until the troposphere at about 75,000 feet altitude.  Any radiative heating from the troposphere would have to get through the denser atmosphere that according to the greenhouse effect are good at absorbing the long wavelength light that is supposed to be heating up the Earth’s surface.  The advocates of the greenhouse effect never really explain the fine details of how this could occur.

There are three main mechanisms of heat transfer: conduction, convection and radiation.  Radiation is mainly important only “for very hot objects, or for objects with a large temperature difference.”[4]  Neither of these is true for the atmosphere and the Earth’s surface.  In addition, the atmosphere is gas, which allows for easy convention and therefore convention is likely the dominate heat transfer mechanism between the Earth’s surface and the atmosphere.  This is what causes high pressure and low pressure systems and most of our weather.  Another point just glossed over by the greenhouse effect analysis.

So how does the atmosphere effect Earth’s surface temperature?

Compared to the moon, which has a mean daytime temperature of 123C and mean nighttime temperature of -233C [a diurnal range of 356C!], the presence of Earth’s atmosphere serves to greatly cool during the day and retain warmth during the night to reduce the diurnal temperature range to only ~11C.[5]

The atmosphere acts to slow the warming during the day and slow the cooling during the day.  The atmosphere acts like an imperfect heat reservoir or heat bath, absorbing excess heat from the Earth’s surface during the day and releasing excess heat in the atmosphere during the night.[6]

Without the greenhouse effect the whole Anthropomorphic Global Warming hypothesis falls apart.  Since a cold object cannot transfer heat to a hotter object, there can be no net radiative energy from the atmosphere that heats up the Earth’s surface.  Thus it is irrelevant whether the gases in the atmosphere are good at absorbing infrared wavelengths of light.

The effect of increasing CO2 levels in the atmosphere on temperature is so trivial as to be immeasurable.  CO2 makes up about 0.04% or 400 parts per million (PPM), which is trivial and does not add to the heat reservoir of the atmosphere.

* There is no greenhouse effect

* Without the greenhouse effect Anthropomorphic Global Warming cannot Exist.

[1] Actually, the term “Earth’s average Temperature” makes no sense.  Do you just add up the temperature readings around the world and divide by the number of readings?  Most temperature readings are in the Northern Hemisphere and almost none are at the poles.  Perhaps with Satellite readings you can make more sense of this term, but you still have the correctly weighting the temperature by the area or volume that it applies to.

[2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_transfer, accessed January 24, 2017.

[3] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_transfer, accessed January 24, 2017.

[4] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_transfer, accessed January 24, 2017.

[5] Why can’t radiation from a cold body make a hot body hotter?, http://hockeyschtick.blogspot.mx/2014/11/why-cant-radiation-from-cold-body-make.html, accessed January 24, 2017.

[6] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermal_reservoir, accessed January 27, 2017.

February 5, 2017

## WHY THERE IS NO GLOBAL WARMING CONSENSUS: Guest Post

The following gives the history of the global warming movement and explains why the scientists overwhelmingly believe that human CO2 does not play a significant role.

History:

In the 1970’s there was a period of global cooling which led the media to a frenzy of reporting a coming ice age.  A considerable body of knowledge existed on climate change and the phenomena which have caused it to occur. Examples are such phenomena as changes in the earth’s orbit, the orientation of the earth axis of rotation, variation in cosmic ray flux, and changes in the ocean currents.  For decades the Greenhouse Effect on the earth’s temperature had been known.  Therefore, during the 1970’s, a Swedish scientist proposed that humans increase their output of CO2 in order to increase the Greenhouse Effect so as to increase the 1970’s global cooling.

During the 1970’s cooling, Britain suffered because their supply of fuel was disrupted, (a) by the Middle East fuel oil embargo, and (b) by British coal miners’ strikes.

In about 1979 global cooling changed to global warming.  Prime Minister Thatcher wanted Britain to shift from coal to nuclear power as France had done. Therefore, she established a committee to report whether an additional argument for a shift to nuclear power was to reduce the output from burning hydrocarbons and thereby reduce the global warming then occurring.  The committee didn’t directly address the other various theories of the cause of climate change.   It studied the effects of human-related CO2 emissions on the earth’s average surface temperature, and the consequences to humans of the hypothesized continuing warming.

Thatcher’s committee released a report in the mid-1980’s finding that the rising CO2 content of the atmosphere since 1980 did correlate with the increase in global temperature.  Without proof it postulated cause-and-effect.  It predicted, without proof, a continuing temperature rise that would be disastrous to mankind.  The media gave lurid reports of the predicted catastrophes.  Environmentalists seized reducing CO2 output as a means to protect the earth.  Cold war activist organizations shifted their efforts to anti-global warming.  Many saw economic opportunity.  Then-Senator Al Gore had learned about global warming in college classes in the 1960’s.  As a Senate Committee Chair, he became a staunch supporter of the human-CO2 hypothesis.

The UN then appointed its Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Control (IPCC) with the mission of protecting the earth from climate change.  The panel was made up of political appointees (scientists and non-scientists) appointed by UN-member nations.  The panel established technical groups with an appointed IPCC member-scientist heading each.  The lead politically-appointed scientists recruited volunteer scientists of established reputations to address explicit technical issues.   They were to do this by a literature search – not by independent investigations.  One small cohort of climatologists evaluated findings on the “IPCC Hypothesis:  human CO2 makes a significant contribution to global warming.”  This cohort was not  concerned with evaluating other potential causes of global warming.  The remaining scientists were to address the various effects which would result from the assumed, continuing, long-term increase in future global temperature.

The technical groups, as I understand it,  were to submit individual group reports of human-related CO2 emissions, to a separate, elite, editing group composed of IPCC’s political appointees (scientists and non-scientists).   That editing group was to prepare a “Summary Report for Decision Makers.”  In doing so, these editors were free to change the scientists’ findings without further input from the scientists on the changes the editors made.  The Summary Report would be released to “decision-makers” and to the public.  Then the groups’ reports would be melded into a single “IPCC Assessment Report,” which also would be available to the public.  The Assessment Report…” would conform to the editor’s Summary Report.

The stage was set for a malfunctioning process.

There have been four such pairs of these two kinds of reports (assessment and summary) issued to date.

Genesis:

The fiction of scientists’ consensus on global warming gained began with the publication of the “First IPCC Summary Report for Decision Makers” in about 1992.  It matured with the Second Report, issued in 1996 and listing some 2,500 “contributors.”  Scientists in the IPCC group expert in the Greenhouse Effect, were a very small fraction of the 2,500 “contributors.  They reported in 1996 that, “No study to date has positively attributed all or part [of the climate change observed to date to anthropogenic [i.e., human] causes.” It was an unequivocal statement.

The politically-appointed editing group changed that scientists’ finding to say, “The balance of evidence suggests that there is a discernable human influence on global climate.”

Thus, the politicians reversed the scientists’ findings.  The subsequent full IPCC 1996 Assessment report was prepared throughout to agree with the reversal.  There was dismay among many climatologists, worldwide.  A number of scientists who had participated asked that their names be removed from the reports’ contributors list.  The IPCC denied these requests, saying, “You contributed. You just didn’t agree.”  It did comply with an eminent French scientist who sued the IPCC in a French civilian court.

Asked why the change was made, the lead editor said it was due to “pressure” from U.N. member nations.  One activity pressing was the U.S. Department of State.  It was during Clinton/Gore Administration and V.P. Gore is said to have been involved.

All of the foregoing in this attachment is based mostly on, “A Skeptics Guide to Debunking Global Warming Alarmism…,” U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, 12/09/06.  See particularly pages 21-22.

Because of the raging controversy following the 1996 report, a social sciences professor at UC, San Diego, read the abstracts of some 900 articles on global warming in the literature and reported that three-fourths of the authors supported the IPCC-Gore human CO2 hypothesis.  A European scientist involved in the global warming program reviewed the same 900 articles plus a few more.  In contrast, he reported that only 10 papers “fully supported” that hypothesis and only 34% “somewhat supported it.”  His report was not published when first submitted for publication in a journal, and the media did not learn of it at the outset.

“Scientific Consensus” and “Settled Science:

Having read the IPCC’s “Second Summary Report for Policymakers” and the paper by the UCSD professor, media personnel believed that it was a broadly accepted scientific conclusion: i.e., “Settled Science.” [“Consensus opinions” is the media’s inaccurate view on how scientific decisions are made.]

Sequentially, the generally used scientific method it is to make an “hypothesis,” validate it to establish a “theory,” have a dialog to establish a generally-accepted theory, and ultimately to establish a “law.”  The dialog is among scientific peers who try to replicate the original experimental findings or to refute those findings with replicated experimental findings. That dialogue continues until the significant issues underlying the theory have been settled with unrefuted evidence.   After some time span of no significant further dialog and of continuing reinforcement, the theory becomes a “law.”  (There are other scientific methods, but none of the other methods were completed on the IPCC Hypothesis, either.)

The IPCC Hypothesis is still an hypothesis.  There are no scientific data demonstrating its truth.

In science, correlation does not of itself prove cause-and-effect.  I.e., a third variable could be causing the other two variables to change value.   Further, as a basic concept, it is not the opinions of a majority of scientists or anyone else who determine the validity of a theory.  Validity is determined by the demonstrated facts pertinent to the issue.  Up to a century or two before Columbus, everyone “knew” the world was flat and the sun revolved around it.

Believing that the IPCC’s second “Summary Report for Policymaker” established a valid theory, the mainstream media has suppressed news which did not support the IPCC Hypothesis.  For example, sixteen months ago I received a response to a draft OpEd submitted for publication.  The rejection said in part, words to the effect, “Our editorial board has decided the global warming issue is settled and there’s no point in prolonging the issue.  We would welcome papers on what to do about it.” [Recently, that media activity apparently negated that decision.]

Scientific dialogue on the IPCC Hypothesis still continues, but the mainstream media still ignores it.  Given the media’s biased reporting, most of the American public and its politicians were taught to believe it’s “settled science,” but the percentages of true believers among our citizens continues to decrease.   Of those scientists in the field who initially supported the hypothesis, many or most no longer do. On the other hand, no publicized “denier” scientists have become supporters

Support for the IPCC Hypothesis:

(a) Private Enterprise:  Industrial purveyors of “green” power sources stand to make billions on equipment, all of which would furnish power at greater expense than current sources.  GE, the corporation which would profit more than any others, reportedly has spent three times as much lobbying Congress as all the oil and coal corporations combined.  Ethanol and other biofuel industries have solid federal political support.  (For drawbacks of green power sources, see below).

(b)  Foreign Nations/United Nations.  An obvious solution to the non-problem defined by the hypothesis is to reduce the industrial CO2 output into the atmosphere.   Since we, the developed nations, are major emitters of CO2  and allegedly can “afford” the added expense of reducing that output, we are expected to make major reductions.  However, the Kyoto Accord exempted all developing nations, including China, India, Brazil, and Indonesia, from the requirement – even though they together place prodigious and rapidly-growing amounts of CO2 effluent.  Nations with appreciable nuclear power sources produce appreciably smaller CO2 – but environmentalists and others in America proscribe more American nuclear plants.  The effects of drastic CO2 emission curtailment on the USA’s economy and environment would be large, but the USA’s reduction would have only a minor effect on the world’s atmospheric CO2 load.  An overwhelming majority of UN nations support its hypothesis and will benefit at the expense of the developed nations grown affluent by the foresight, earnest attention, and hard work of its citizens.

(c)  American Government.  Many key politicians in our national and state governments vote in conformance with, (1) polls of their generally-misinformed voters, and (2) the vested-interests of their financial contributors.  Equally important, the government deficit funding supports industrial, commercial, and agricultural interests, which generates current government tax income.

(d)  Environmentalist:  There are valid concerns about trace emissions from burned hydrocarbon fuel.  For example our cars’ catalytic converters have devices to reduce this pollution and have mostly eliminated smog.  Further reduction is desirable:  we need to stop polluting the planet.  However, the combustion fuel pollutants do NOT include CO2.      Atmospheric CO2 itself is NOT only is NOT a pollutant; as described below, it is beneficial to both animals and plants.

Opposition to the IPCC Hypothesis.

(a) In the early 1990s, concerned climatologists (and the organizations they formed) challenged the technical claims being made by the human-CO2-effects proponents. These organizations evolved into the pro bono “Non-governmental International Panel on Climate Control (NIPCC).”  Headed by icons in the climatology field, the NIPCC has published two major reports and held two major, widely-attended, three-day, international conferences in New York City.  [Please Google, “NIPCC.”]  The mainstream media failed to report these NIPCC news items, while publicizing the UN-sponsored global warming meetings – meetings in which, NIPCC-member papers were denied presentation for seemingly political reasons.

(b) The media also failed to report the numerous surveys of professionals in the field who dispute the IPCC Hypothesis – such as the Global Warming Petition Project of 31,500 signees.   Active opposition is needed to counter the biased education of the voters, but only the conservative talk radio and the Fox News Network are reporting the countervailing facts.

(c)  In addition to the problems with the Second IPCC Assessment Report given above, the Third and Fourth IPCC Assessment Reports have had similar egregious technical faults.  For example, the Third Assessment Report emphasized the “hockey stick graph” which wrongly portrays global temperature history and events before 1970 and since 1998.  IPCC scientists unsuccessfully opposed its inclusion in the report, and the American Academy of Science later judged to be “of little utility.”  Subsequently, the hockey stick graph disappeared from scientific discourse.

(d) All of the IPCC Reports are based on the assumption that human-related CO2 caused the global warming between 1980 and 1996.  That assumption is based on the alleged correlation of the increases in atmospheric CO2 and in average annual global temperature during those years.  However, Gore and others plotted the two curves going back eons of time with one curve separated on the graph some distance above the other.  If the two curves are plotted so that they overlap, it is clear that the temperature changes first and then one or two hundred years later the air’s CO2 content changes.  Because of that time relationship, changes in the atmospheric CO2 does not cause the temperature change.  It’s vice versa.  This time lapse is because the ocean is the earth’s largest storehouse of (dissolved) CO2; and an increasing water temperature decreases the ocean’s solubility constant for dissolved gases.  Because water warmed by the sun, ocean currents, etc., is lighter than cold water, it takes many years of roiling the ocean water for the heat to be transferred to the full volume of oceans so as to obtain the full release of dissolved CO2.

(e) Increasing CO2 will benefit plants.  Doubling (2X) atmospheric CO2 will increase foodstuff production worldwide about 24%.  It will increase all plant growth rates [e.g. pine trees, about 40%].  In the ranges of interest in the IPCC Hypothesis, warming doesn’t hurt plants.

(f) Increased food and renewable resources benefits humans.   Historically, the high points of civilization have occurred during periods of global warmth.   The threshold at which CO2 becomes physiologically harmful is at atmospheric concentration about 25X that at present.  Note that Gore’s agog was concerned about an (improbable) increase to 2X by the next century.  Global warming benefits humans

(g) The CBO estimated that passing Cap and Trade will cost the average household an extra \$875 in electricity costs in the year 2020, not the \$175 estimated by the Administration.  Further, this \$875 will greatly increase in subsequent years when the additional reductions in carbon emissions are required.  In addition to the increased costs of citizens’ home power consumption, Cap and Trade will significantly increase the cost of citizen’s food, clothing, shelter, and services, and any other activities requiring the use of power – like travel and golf course maintenance.

(h) Change of corn harvest from food to ethanol has already decreased the supply of corn as food for the earth’s population; causing starvation in poor countries.  Corn for ethanol production requires vast arable land areas.

(I) Wind power substituted for coal will increase power costs 75%.  It will take four hundred (400) square miles of land and thousands of miles of power lines to produce enough energy to power a typical city with wind power. Offshore windmill installations will be an ecological disaster to marine life and migrating birds; and it will be very more expensive than land-based windmills.

(j) Solar (thermal) power will require large land areas and will cost 570% more than coal.   Solar (photoelectric) will require large land areas and will cost 887% more than coal.

(k) In time we will exhaust present supplies of economical fossil fuels.  Before that happens we can phase in nuclear power.  The waste storage of all the wastes from nuclear power plants of the world to date will take only the volume of one commercial building; and space to take America’s waste exists in prepared underground chambers underneath the Nevada Test Site.  The nuclear accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl occurred with   unsafe, unstable designs that are no longer used.  Our Navy has been nuclear-powered commencing in the 1950’s without human damage, and since perhaps since the 1960’s France has produced most of its power from the atom.  It’s the environmentalists’ unreasonable dread of a nuclear power plant explosion or of a vast spill of nuclear wastes that dropped America from world leadership in the nuclear power field – not the ability to construct a safe industry.

(l) Development of nuclear fusion power sources was halted in parallel with that of stopping nuclear fission power plant construction.  There is a nearly inexhaustible source of deuterium in the world’s oceans, but the unattained task is to contain the fusion reaction.

(m) Considering all the IPCC assessment reports to date, there is not a shred of scientific evidence that human-related CO2 has an observable effect on the earth’s annual average surface temperature.  There is ample evidence that it does not.  For example, even though the atmospheric CO2 concentration has continued to the present, the earth stopped warming in 1998, commenced cooling soon after 2000, and is still cooling. The rate of cooling between 2006 and 2007 was the greatest rate of change for either heating or cooling since such measurements have been recorded.

(n) Further, There are many other indications that the cause of the 1980-1998 temperature rise is not increasing atmospheric CO2.  (1) If the IPCC hypothesis were valid, than per thermodynamics the troposphere temperature should be rising.  It isn’t.  (2) At least in America, and probably in other developed nations, the thermometers measuring surface temperature are in urban areas; and in these areas there is a “heat island” effect compared to surrounding areas.   Urban growth itself raises the difference in temperature between urban areas and the much larger adjacent rural areas.   (3) Many temperature-measuring instruments in America have been identified as being in faulty locations such as adjacent to air conditioner heat exhausts.  Thus, the US NOAA-measured temperatures have been found to have been significantly increased by such faults.  (4) All the computer programs used to predict future temperatures have used the assumption of a positive feedback effect from low-level clouds caused by condensation of rising moist air rising from heated earth’s surfaces.  However, the predicted human CO2 effect is exaggerated.  It recently has been shown that the low-cloud feedback is not positive – it’s negative.

(o) Assume, for purposes of discussion, that increasing atmospheric CO2 causing a larger Greenhouse Effect is the basic cause of the 1980-1998 global temperature increase.  What percentage of that increase is due to human-related CO2 emissions?  First, water vapor comprises more than 50% of the Greenhouse gases and contributes 96% of the Greenhouse Effect.  Atmospheric CO2 comprises 0.04% of the atmosphere and contributes less than 4% to the Greenhouse Effect.  Second, over 50% of the CO2 emitted into the earth’s atmosphere is emitted by volcanoes (on land and underwater).  During global warming, next is the CO2 from the ocean.  Other sources in decreasing importance come animals’ emissions (excluding humans), then bacterial emissions, then humans with a very small percentage.   Because the human CO2 effect on Greenhouse warming is a >4% times a very small percent, human-related CO2 emissions contribute less than 0.1% of an increase in the earth’s Greenhouse Effect.

Doubling human emissions from less than 0.1% to less than 0.2% would cause an immeasurably small change in the overall Greenhouse effect.

Conclusion.

The data show that human-related CO2 has an insignificant effect on the Greenhouse Effect’s ability to raise global surface average annual temperature.  Even if it did, CO2 is beneficial, not harmful, to humans, animals, and plants.  The “global warming religion” is not based on “science.”  It is based on other human motivations.

Benjamin H. Colmery, PhD is an honor graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy.  He holds two masters degrees (Ohio State, physics, and UCLA, Eng. Mgt.) and a PhD (Wharton, Management).

April 27, 2013

## Basics of Heat Transfer: Understanding the Physics of Global Warming

The temperature on Earth is a heat transfer problem.  This post will outline the basics physics involved.  First of all you have to determine the sources of heat for Earth.  The main source of heat for the Earth is the Sun (S).  Much smaller sources of heating on Earth are the thermal heat from geothermal sources and stellar radiation.  Geothermal energy has been decreasing over the life of the Earth and presently is likely too small to have any significant effect on temperatures.  Stellar radiation probably varies over huge cycles as the Solar System orbits the Milky Way, but is still small compared to the Sun.

The next question is whether S varies as a function of time.  The answer is yes.  For instance, sun spots cause variations in S.  Unfortunately, our physics does not allow us to model S(t).  At best we only have a vague idea based on historical evidence and what we know about other similar stars.  However, no one with certainty can say that the Sun’s output will not change radically the next year.  We have data on the Sun’s output that at best goes back with any accuracy 800 years.  Eight hundred years is not statistically significant compared to the 5 billion years of Earth and statistical modeling would still just be a guess.  We know similar stars eventually expand to several times the Sun’s present size and its output changes radically.  In addition, the amount of Solar radiation reaching Earth varies based on the variation in Earth’s orbit Milankovitch cycles.  These can be predicted and show a strong connection with Ice Ages, although all the mechanisms are not known.

Some of the solar radiation that hits Earth’s atmosphere is absorbed and some is reflected.  In addition, the Earth radiates some of its energy into space.  The amount of solar radiation that is reflected varies over time based on the different spectrum of light hitting the Earth and based on changes in the Earth’s magnetic field and clouds.  These variations are not well known and cannot be accurately modeled.  The amount of solar radiation that is absorbed necessarily varies also.  Things that affect the amount of absorption include clouds, greenhouse gases, absorption by the surface of the Earth and changes in Earth’s magnetic field.  Of the greenhouse gases, water vapor makes up up 95% of the greenhouse gas effect – almost all water vapor in the atmosphere occurs naturally.  CO2 represents about 3.6% of the greenhouse effect gases.  However, only 0.117% of this is man-made.  All man-made greenhouse gases consist of only 2.8% of the total.  The whole theory of AGW (Anthropomorphic Global Warming) is based on this single factor.

Our model does not include the radiation of heat from the Earth, let’s call it E.  All bodies radiate heat.  Roughly the amount of heat radiated from Earth will be equal to the surface area of the atmosphere.  However, the surface area of the Earth will vary based on the temperature and solar wind.  PV=nRT.  As the temperature rises the Volume and Pressure will increase.  No one can accurately model this radiative cooling.  In addition, there will be cooling because of the loss of matter.

So far we have the energy part of the equation.  In order to convert this into a temperature on Earth we have to the specific heat of air, land – including the different geographic regions, and water.  While it would be possible to determine some sort of average with some accuracy, this will not suffice because the air and water will move based on localized heating.  This will cause variations in the surface temperature and the atmospheric temperatures, which would be difficult to relate back to the model and vice versa.  No one can provide a good model for this term.

So what we have is an equation for the temperature on Earth T(t) which is the product of the Energy absorbed times the specific heat.  The energy absorbed is a function of the energy hitting Earth, which includes the S – Sun output, stellar radiation and geothermal energy.  We do not have an accurate model of the Sun’s output.  We do not know if it will suddenly increase or decrease.  The best we know is what has happened in the recent past.  We do not know or have good model for the amount of energy that is absorbed.  We do not know or have good model of the amount of energy emitted from Earth and we do not have a good handle on the specific heat or how to relate it to observed temperatures.  Despite all this ignorance, we are to believe that the effect of man-made greenhouse can be accurately predicted.  This is not science, it is guessing.  To pretend we can predict average global temperatures within a tenth of a degree is absurd – it is debatable whether we can measure them with that sort of accuracy.)

Failures of AGW models:

1) They do not explain Ice Ages or subsequent warming periods.  (I welcome comments, but if you support AGW you must provide a model that shows why ice ages occur or it will be deleted – I am not going to waste my time going down rabbit holes.)

2) CO2 levels generally rise after the Earth has warmed not vice versa.  The likely reason for this is that the oceans hold enormous amounts of dissolved CO2.  When the temperature of the oceans increase they release CO2.

3) No rational explanation is given for why AGW models focus on CO2 and other greenhouse gases, while ignoring the problems in their model.

4) The last 15 years have proven that AGW models are just plain wrong – but the excuse is we need more time.  However, they were selective in their time periods in the first place.  There was significant cooling in from 1965 to 1980, but they ignored this data and called anyone who pointed this out part of the Flat Earth Society.

5) There was significant warming from 1900-1940, but this is not correlated to increases in man-made CO2 and AGW models do not explain this.

6) The Japanese (IBUKU) satellite show that Industrial Countries actually are net carbon sinks.

7) The shows that AGW is a religion, it is not a science.

Supporters of AGW Lie, fudge data, or just make up data.

1) The 1st UN IPCC summary lied about what the scientists on the panel had said.

2) They lied about the temperature data in Climate Gate ignoring the Little Ice Age.

3) They claim that the number of polar bears is decreasing, this is just not true.

4) They claim the oceans are rising – this is not true.

5) They claim that the Greenland Ice Sheet is melting at an alarming rate – this is not true

6) They claim that the number of major weather events has increased – the evidence shows the exact opposite.

This list is almost endless, but I will stop here.

Supporters of AGW exaggerate the problems of a warmer Earth and ignore the Benefits

1) During the 5 billion years Earth has been around it has been in an Ice Age the majority of the time.  Only during the recent warming periods have human civilizations thrived.

2) The North Pole could melt completely and the Earth’s Oceans would not be one millimeter higher.

3) A warmer Earth will produce more crops and reduce weather related deaths.

Supporters of AGW hate Humans

AGW supporters are the same environmentalists that will tell you there are too many people on Earth.  Their solution to every problem is fewer human beings.  There have been several very inexpensive solutions proposed on how to deal with Global Warming if it were true.  The environmentalists were not interested in technological solutions, because are anti-technology, anti-human and EVIL.

November 17, 2012