This book explores the state of modern physics and suggests that theoretical physics has passed over into fairy tales. The author suggests that many of the models proposed by theoretical physicists today are untestable, not that they have not yet been tested, but they can never be tested. These theories have become total disconnected from empirical evidence, i.e., reality, and therefore threaten the vary basis of science. He shows that this has led to theoretical physicists providing a scientific veneer to theological arguments, particularly the strong anthtropic principle in cosmology.
This book is very well written and is probably the best overview of modern theoretical physics I have ever read. The book starts out by providing the “standard” understanding of modern physics. Then it proceeds to examine some of the problems in physics, starting with Newton’s gravity as force at a distance. He examines some of the early debates about quantum mechanics and then moves onto the standard model of particle physics and cosmology. However it is not until he gets to String Theory, M-Brane or M-Theory and related ideas. In my opinion, the author gives most of these ideas in physics the benefit of the doubt. The author is respectful and provides overwhelming arguments before he calls any particular model fairy tale physics. This is an excellent book for anyone interested in these issues.
Now for my criticisms: the book’s vague development of what constitutes science, while perhaps generous to the ideas he is criticizing is hardly a rigorous statement of the foundations of science. In part, this is because the author buys into a platonic view of reality. Strangely enough many of the models he criticizes also are based on a platonic view of reality. If his foundations of science were more closely aligned with those of the enlightenment his arguments would be strengthened and he would find the source of the problems started earlier in physics than the book portrays. If you are interested how anti-enlightenment philosophical ideas caused physics to go off course leading to the problems today see Absurdities in Modern Physics: A Solution, by Paul Marmet.
This book is part of a growing chorus that modern physics has lost its way and therefore all of science has also.
Intellectual property and economic prosperity: Friends or foes?, in TechPolicyDaily.com. The article reviews a report by the Mercatus Center, a free-market think tank that is highly critical of IP. Here is one of my favorite quotes from the article:
“It is bewildering, for example, to find a libertarian think tank arguing that government projects are superior to private property rights as a means of directing resources to innovative activities.”
What is amazing is that the evidence between inventions, economic growth, and property rights for inventions is overwhelming. Those countries with the strongest patent systems are leaders in creating new technologies and the leaders in disseminating new technologies.
This story starts about 1982. At the time we were doing job shop work One of the Engines that drives the US economy is the US patent system. Any talk about changing it or doing away with it is stupid. The rewards that a patent can bring are a huge incentive to create. Without the US patent system, I would be near destitute. I have 28 patents I have had 5 licensing contracts. Some of these are world wide successes now. Do a Google search for my and get over 30,000,000 hits. Without US patent protection, I wouldn’t have had an incentive to create these inventions. Anyone who says the opposite is juvenile-stupid or worse. This is why inventors from all over the world are flocking to the US to patent their inventions and corner one of the worlds biggest markets!
Another engine that drives the US economy is our free enterprise system.
[My business started] in my 2 car garage. One day my neighbor came over and asked if I could make some security wrenches for them. He was the manager for the warehouse of a large cable company. He showed me the sample and I could see it would be a very nasty job. So I said we were too busy. He kept coming back. On the third time I said we would. So I made him samples and received an order for 100. He reordered about every 9 months. In the mean time, another cable company wanted some of the same. My other machining business was evaporating. My son Eric said, “lets go in to the cable business,” so I said OK. The first thing Eric did, was to go to work for a large cable company. There, he learned the business and got acquainted with a lot of personnel. This helped with future sales because my son Eric knew a lot of people in the cable business. He worked there for the summer and then came back to work for me.
I decided to build a house first. It took 6 ½ months plus time for drafting and planning. I drew up plans and had them approved by the county. It was a raised ranch house with a 1700 square foot full basement, which would be a machine shop. It was great.
Eric came in one day and said, “ We need a name for this new business.“ I agreed.
I said,make a list tonight starting with your top choice, and we will discuss it tomorrow. The next morning we had the same name at the top of our lists. It’s ‘Cablepro”. I think this is a great name. Every cable installer that sees this name thinks in the back of his mind that these tools will make him more professional
Now the problem was expanding the business. We did several things which worked very well. One thing was that I bought a cable book which listed every cable system and their personnel in the USA. It cost me $375. I chose 1500 of the biggest cable systems in the US to make a mailing list. I made a flier although we only had a few tools and mailed them.
Mailing lists typically yield a return of around 2%. I received over 300 orders from this mailing. That is over 20%. It is important to recognize why this worked so well. First of all, everyone who received a flier was using these very tools. Secondly, big companies don’t want to sell a $10 wrench. They want to sell a truck load of amplifiers at several thousand dollars each or several miles of cable, All the orders were for one tool because they had never heard of us. A few months later I sent out another flyer with more tools and received over 100 orders which were $100-$300 dollars each. Now we were nationwide. I had to hire some more employees.
Another thing we did which worked very well was [to have] a truck with tools on the road. A customer would call and say they wanted to buy a dozen wrenches so the truck would be there the next morning. They usually bought more than they originally ordered. It is expensive to keep a truck and an employee on the road but it paid off. We took over the tool business in this town. An unforeseen benefit was new products. All cable systems have a box where they throw broken tools. My son Eric would ask to see if any of our tools were returned and none were. Whatever tool was the most prevalent in the box was our next new product guaranteed not to break. After we did this several times the cable companies starting saving the broken tools for us to redesign and make. Our biggest competitor was whining about how bad [the] sales of tools were. It was because he didn’t deliver. We never made money with that truck, but we built a business.
Now I had 5 men working for me full time. One on the road and 4 of us in the shop making tools. Business was booming. We had 25 products by now and sales had hit $25,000 per month. What I needed was some fancy machinery which I didn’t have. I didn’t have the money to buy the machinery or a shop big enough to use it. Growing New businesses soak up operating capital like a sponge.
All of a sudden, a potential buyer shows up. His sales had dropped 50% [in the] last year and he had fancy machinery sitting around. We soon had a deal. I sold him the rights to my products for 5% of sales for 7 years. I gave him a customer list, a line of products and my son Eric. My son knew a lot about how to make the products. He was in charge of getting the tools made at the new company. He was responsible for ordering materials, Scheduling production and running production. It went smoothly and soon I was getting royalties. I called it a licensing agreement but my accountant said it was a delayed purchase plan. Anyway, the checks cash the same.
At this time I had about $25,000 in receivables which I was able to collect and $25.000 in inventory which I sold to my licensee because he didn’t have anything to sell. One of the measures of business success is how long does it take to turn over your inventory. One month is outstanding. The shop was working 6 days a week and Sunday was for payroll, taxes, bookkeeping and preparing orders. I hadn’t taken any money out of the business since it started. These were factors which helped make the decision to sell,
Afterward, he asked me to see if I could design a crimper that would crimp a connector fitting round instead of the standard hex crimp. The standard hex crimp is on a round cable and it lets water and signal in and signal out. Does that make any sense? I am an engineer by trade, so I did it and it has been a real winner. This is an unusual situation, Using this crimper enables the cable company to use cheaper connectors, saving 5 cents each. If an employee is putting on 50 connectors a day you can see what a saving this new crimper is. The crimper will pay for itself. This tool and the others are being sold all over the world now.
By now the licensee has a factory in the USA, one factory in China, and two factories in India. He just finished building a new house for $11,000,000. This is what new products, intellectual property and hard work can do for you.
By Don Kesinger
Reason Magazine has released a video, entitled How Patent Trolls Kill Innovation. The magazine banner states that they support “Free Minds and Free Markets” but this video relies on the same irrational, emotion driven logic as the media. I cannot point out all the errors in this video, but below I will highlight some of the major points. Before I do that , let me show some of the sleazy attempts by Reason Magazine to use emotion and hidden assumptions to advance their argument, instead of reason and logic.
Emotion and Faith
*The video starts with the hidden assumption that patents are not property rights – faith not reason.
*The video uses the phrase “patent trolls” to immediately define who is right or wrong without actually proving their case – an emotional appeal.
*The video selects a small entrepreneur to narrate their story – using the typical liberal tactic of pretending this is a fight between a small virtuous entity against a big faceless entity. The reality is that so-called “Trolls” sue large entities much more often than small businesses. Emotional appeal, not reason.
*The video uses an “expert”, Julie Samuels, from a biased source, (Mark Cuban’s lobby group) who has no qualifications in the subject. She has a degree in Journalism and Law, which means she is NOT A PATENT ATTORNEY and does not have the technical skills to understand the underlying technology of patents. Faith not reason.
The video never asks if Austin Meyer did a patent search and clearance opinion before building and selling his software. You would not build a house without doing a title search to make sure you owned the land. Given Mr. Meyer’s surprise that he was being sued for patent infringement, he almost certainly did not undertake this simple due diligence step.
Using Other Peoples’ Property
Mr. Meyer complains that he may have to pay the patent holder for the life of his product. Yes, that is what happens when you use someone else’s property. This is like a steel manufacturer complaining that they have to continue to pay for coal or pay rent for a building they do not own.
Note that the underlying technology is critical to Mr. Meyer getting paid, but he doesn’t want to pay for it.
The anti-patent crowd always complains that these suits are brought in East Texas. If someone refused to pay you rent for staying in your house, would you chose the slowest court in the country or a faster court? Federal Court for the Eastern district of Texas has been one of the fastese to bring invention squatters to justice.
The video makes the implicit assumption that non-practicing entities (NPE) are evil. However, Edison was a NPE, as was Tesla, as was almost every great inventor in the last 200 years, as our most major corporations, as most of our Universities and Government labs. Our Founders looked at the issue of requiring inventors to practice their invention in order to keep their patent and rejected it. They voted for a FREE MARKET system where people could be independent inventors, just like writers do not have to be publishers in order to obtain or keep their copyrights. This is consistent with Adam Smith’s division of labor theory.
The video takes the stand that if you buy the patent rights instead of being the inventor,this is somehow evil. First, all corporations buy their patents – often by paying wages. Corporation don’t invent so they have to buy their patents. Second, we do not argue just because you didn’t build your house you cannot rent it out .
Mr. Meyer states in the video that the technology he wants to use is old, from the 80s. If this were true, Mr. Meyer would be free to use it. But, instead, he wants the updated version of the technology that ensures he gets paid, he just doesn’t want to pay for it.
The Patent Should Not Have Issued
Neither Mr. Meyer nor the so called expert, Julie Samuels, are patent attorneys. They are NOT QUALIFIED to evaluate the scope of the claims of a patent. It is interesting how lay people (I include attorneys who are not patent attorneys in this definition) believe they can just read a patent and evaluate it, but they would never try to do the same thing with a Warranty Clause in a contract or an Indemnity Clause. No one would believe a Journalism major or an attorney (non-technical) is qualified to comment on software technology; but somehow they are qualified to comment on patents on software? This is like asking a plumber to comment on the design of a Nuclear Power Plant.
Patents and the Free Market
Patents are property rights, just like a property right in a farm. The basis for all property rights is creation. Inventions are clearly creations. Property rights are part of the free market. Those countries that are the freest economically have the strongest patents laws, are the most innovative, and have the highest standards of living. REASON MAGAZINE is pushing a point of view that is much more consistent with a Marxist’s labor theory of value than Capitalism.
REASON MAGAZINE is neither promoting REASON or FREE MARKETS in posting this video.
The underlying “scientific” basis for all environmentalism is the second law of thermodynamics or entropy. Environmentalist believe that entropy scientifically proves that we have peak oil problem, an over-population problem, a pollution problem, global warming and the myriad of other things environmentalist believe need to be fixed. It provides the moral basis for their argument that government must force people to quit using their cars, pro-creating, using ‘fossil fuels’, hydraulic fracturing, pesticides, irrigating, etc. According to environmentalists it also proves that technology can never solve these problems and the only solution is for humans to abandon technology and live in a “state of nature.” Entropy provides them the moral and scientific high ground in any debate and justifies any government intrusion into the private lives of people, including killing them.
Things fall apart because it’s the Law: the Second Law of Thermodynamics also referred to as the Law of Entropy. Everything disintegrate, degenerate, shatter, fracture, split, tear, break up, break down, break, rust, die, decay, wear out, rip, or move from a state of order to disorder; not unless new energy is infused for regular maintenance and rebuilding of its structure.
The paper further explains, “Left unchecked, entropy will eliminate all life forms by randomizing vital life-sustaining molecules.” Jermy Rifkin, a leading environmentalist, has written a whole book about entropy, which argues that we need to use fewer resources to forestall the inevitable collapse of civilization. The most extreme version of this idea is called the Heat Death of the Universe, which states that the Universe will end up with a uniform temperature and uniform distribution of matter. Human’s are accelerating this process, according to the environmentalists and the more humans there are and the more energy they use the faster this is accelerated. Their answer is fewer humans and less technology. I wondered how they would tie entropy to anthropomorphic global warming (AGW) their favorite crisis right now. One paper entitled Entropy and Global Warming I, explains the connection this way.
Population Growth and intense per capita energy consumption may be seen to be at the root of virtually all of the world’s environmental problems. Global Warming, Depletion of Ozone Layer, Air Pollution, Ground Water Depletion, Chemical Risks, Pesticide Residue in Crops and in Fish.
It appears that the tie between entropy and AGW is over-population.
When I point out that environmentalists are anti-human most people think either I am wrong or that I am exaggerating. But consider the following examples.
- A leading environmentalist, Dr. Eric R. Pianka advocated the elimination of 90 percent of Earth’s population by airborne Ebola in front of few hundred members of the Texas Academy of Science who rose to their feet, and gave him a standing ovation. Dr. Pianka attempted to deny this, but the evidence was overwhelming including his student evaluations.
- The DDT ban resulted in the death of over 100 million people. Alexander King, founder of the Malthusian Club of Rome, wrote in a biographical essay in 1990: “My own doubts came when DDT was introduced. In Guyana, within two years, it had almost eliminated malaria. So my chief quarrel with DDT, in hindsight, is that it has greatly added to the population problem.” http://jiminmontana.wordpress.com/2012/01/15/environmentalism-the-green-religion-of-dehumanization/.
- Dr. Charles Wurster, one of the major opponents of DDT, is reported to have said, “People are the cause of all the problems. We have too many of them. We need to get rid of some of them, and this (referring to malaria deaths) is as good a way as any.” http://jiminmontana.wordpress.com/2012/01/15/environmentalism-the-green-religion-of-dehumanization/.
- “A total population of 250-300 million people, a 95% decline from present levels, would be ideal,” Turner stated in 1996.
Environmentalist killed over 100 million people in the 20th Century – but they won’t be satisfied until they have killed at least another 5 billion people.
ENVIRONMENTALISTS ARE EVIL
Marxists seem to be the main people who are pointing out that Environmentalists do not understand entropy. For instance, the paper The Limits to Entropy: the Continuing Misuse of Thermodynamics in Environmental and Marxist theory points out some of these errors. This paper ends with the terrifying thought “The appropriation of misleading entropy concepts by Marxists is particularly unhelpful, since Marxist theory should be a guide for red-green political practice.” Another paper that disagrees with this entropy apocalypse is by the renown economist Julian L. Simon, entitled ENTROPY AND ENERGY ACCOUNTING: ARE THEY RELEVANT CONCEPTS?
Entropy in science is the energy in a system that cannot be used to do work and the second law of thermodynamics states that in an ISOLATED SYSTEM entropy always increases or stays the same. Entropy says nothing about order. In fact, crystalline structures have high entropy but are very ordered. A common example to explain this is provided by the article Entropy is Not Disorder, by Nathaniel Virgo.
Imagine filling a glass jar with water and cooking oil. Give it a good shake: the oil is now interspersed with the water. It’s an opaque, homogeneous mess. Very disordered. But now, leave the jar on the table for a few minutes. In the parlance of thermodynamics, this is a closed system (more or less — we can safely ignore the various ways in which it isn’t), so its entropy must increase over time. But as we watch, the oil separates from the water, forming a nice, orderly layer on top of it. The system, to the eye at least, appears to have become less disordered even as its entropy increased.
As a result, all the statements about entropy leading to disorder by environmentalist are just so much nonsense. In addition, the Earth is not an isolated system. An isolated system is one in which there is no energy or matter exchange occurs. Earth receives enormous amounts of energy from the Sun and exchanges it with the surrounding space. It also exchanges matter with space. Since gravity affects almost any system, almost no system can be consider isolated. The Universe might be an isolated system, but new theories about multiple universes, multiple dimensions, and that the Universe is likely infinite cast serious doubt on this. What this means is that Environmentalists supposed moral and scientific high ground is without any basis in fact. How anyone who advocate mass murder can be considered to have the moral high ground escapes me.
It is not surprising that environmentalist make these mistakes as most of them do not have a solid background in physics or chemistry. For instance, Jermy Rifkin, has a BA in economics and a MA in International Affairs.
Environmentalist Do Not Understand Entropy
Their Conclusions are Nonsense
They are Advocating and Implementing MASS MURDER Based on this Misinterpretation of Entropy
 Maharaj. Dr. Indar, ENTROPY:THE IMPACT OF A LOW-ENTROPY LIFE ON THE ENVIRONMENT
Live Simply that Others may Simply Live, https://sites.google.com/a/greenthinktank.org/greentt/mainmission/entropy
 Entropy and Global Warming I, by Dr. Mofiz Uddin Ahmed, http://www.newstoday.com.bd/index.php?option=details&news_id=2333010&date=2013-01-01
 Meeting Doctor Doom, By Forrest M. Mims, III, The Eco-Logic Powerhouse http://www.freedom.org/board/articles/mims-506.html.
 Ted Turner Repeats Call For Population Curb, by Paul Joseph Watson Prison Planet Monday, April 28, 2008 http://www.prisonplanet.com/articles/april2008/042808_ted_turner.htm
 The Limits to Entropy: the Continuing Misuse of Thermodynamics in Environmental and Marxist theory (PDF version))2008, Science & Society v. 72, No.1, 43-62. By David Schwartzman, http://www.redandgreen.org/Documents/Limits%20to%20entropy%20final.htm
Wireless technology has been proved to be a boon for the internet connectivity. It is surely convenient to one and all, but when the connecting speed goes down, nothing can seem to help you. The signal of a Wi-Fi computer network is something that can be improved and boosted up in many ways. To know them all, read on the following.
Reposition the router or access point
This is done in order to escape from radio interference and obstructions as well. The two of these are majorly responsible for reducing and affecting the range of the equipment that serves for Wi-Fi connection. Cordless phones, microwave ovens, brick and even plaster walls are a few residential sources which serve as immediate barriers in creating interference in the connection. The solution to avoid this interference is to change the number of Wi-Fi channel and this is done on the Wi-Fi equipment itself.
Upgrade the antenna on the router
The stations with a wireless base have Wi-Fi antennas. These antennas have the option to be removed and thereby a more powerful antenna can be fixed whose range is much higher.
You may add some other access point or router
The residential areas that are typically large do have to go for two or a little more access points (AP’s). And when it comes to a business house, then the need can turn up to more than a dozen of access point as the range has to be too large. This is much simpler when it comes to a home. All you are required to do is to connect the primary access point (or the wireless router) to the other with the help of an Ethernet cable. The wireless router or the AP’s that are employed at home are the ones which do not reciprocate with each other through a direct contact.
Employ a bi-directional Wi-Fi signal amplifier
The Wi-Fi signal amplifier is fixed to the wireless device. This Wi-Fi signal amplifier is also known as a “Signal Booster” because it boosts and amplifies the signal. The signal booster is simply fixed to either a Wi-Fi client or a router or to the access point. And the antenna is connected to any one of these. There is a particular point where the antenna has to be connected. The purpose of employing bi-directional antenna is to amplify the signal which is wireless in receiving and transmitting directions. The Wi-Fi transmission of this kind is known as two-way radio communication.
Add a Wi-Fi repeater
A Wi-Fi wireless repeater is a device which has to be positioned in such a way that it falls within a certain range of access point or wireless router. Infect, it is a stand-alone unit as a whole. The repeater is also known as range repeater sometimes. The function of this range repeater is to work like a double way and relay station for all Wi-Fi signals. The clients who really lie at a far distance from the original wireless router or AP have a good option to set up a link to the WLAN using the repeater.
About the author: Rebecca is a blogger by profession. She loves writing on environment and technology. Beside this she is fond of reading about new gizmos. Recently an article on Music Systems caught her attention. These days she is busy in writing an article on perfect evening dress for dinner.
Perfect competition is when no one producer or consumer has the ability to affect the market price and all producers and consumers compete for a homogenous product, driving down the cost of the product. Under perfect competition, a producer’s profit is eliminated or at least reduced to a trivial return. Why this matters to patents is that the theory of perfect competition is often used to attack the patents. It is argued that patents allow producers a differentiating feature or product and therefore they have a greater margin than their competitors. Economists argue this means that the patent holder is getting monopoly profits according to the “perfect competition” theory and they call this profit a “deadweight” loss. This supposedly shows that resources are not being allocated efficiently.
So why do I say Perfect Competition is the equivalent of Altruism morally? Altruism is the idea of self sacrifice as a moral value and perfect competition is the economic idea of sacrificing a producer profits and a consumer’s right to choice. The goal of perfect competition is that no one, producer or consumer, is treated as an individual and everyone needs to be sacrificed to the altar of perfect competition collective. There is never any discussion of property rights with respect to “perfect competition” or individual rights.
Ayn Rand often stated that so called defenders of capitalism are often worse than its detractors. Perfect competition is another example of this. The Chicago School of economics, which included Milton Friedman, pushed the idea of “perfect competition.” The book of A Random Walk Down Wall Street was the application of perfect competition to Wall Street by a Chicago School of Economics professor. Perfect competition is the enemy of capitalism, individual rights, and economic growth.
Real per capita growth is the result of increases in one’s level of technology. Under perfect competition, there is no reason to invest in creating new technologies and in fact there is no reason to invest at all. Under perfect competition every investment yields the same low rate of return or no rate of return. Perfect competition is used to justify antitrust laws that destroy property rights and most importantly property rights in inventions. Perfect competition results in the same sort of idea of self sacrifice as altruism and is totally incompatible with capitalism, property rights, natural rights, and human happiness.
Steve Jobs was an inventor on over 300 patents. He is the quintessential American inventor entrepreneur. He and Steve Wozniak started Apple in January of 1977. The company went public in December of 1980 and was the largest IPO (Initial Public Offering) since Ford in 1956. Apple goes on to launch the MacIntosh in 1984 with its now famous television ad that played off the book 1984, where IBM played the role of Big Brother. This launches the graphical user interface (GUI) as the standard for computers.
This fairy tale start to Apple is marred by John Sculley, former president of Pepsi, being appointed CEO of Apple and firing Steve Jobs in 1985. Strangely enough, Jobs foreshadowed this event in his Playboy interview in which he talked about how Polaroid fired Edwin Land, their creative founder and how Polaroid floundered thereafter. Once Jobs was fired, Apple floundered for over a decade, and in the late 1990’s was all but dead. Jobs returned to Apple 1997 and to profitability by 1998. This is a cautionary tale for all those management gurus who ignore the technical creative genius and believe running a business is all about people skills, management, or finance. Real wealth is created by invention and Jobs was a consummate inventor as his patent record shows.
An interesting question is raised in the book Great Again is could Apple have been successful today? They answer the above query with a series of questions:
Could a twenty-year-old college dropout, just back from six months in an ashram somewhere, attract funding for a capital-intensive venture based on the manufacture (yes, they manufacture) and sale of a $2,500 consumer product unlike any that had ever been bought by consumers before? One whose potential uses were at best unknown, and possibly nonexistent? And one for which the total current market size was exactly zero?
Not only could Apple not get funded today, it probably could not go public. Nor would Apple have received its first patent (USPN 4,136,359) in only 20 months. The book asks “how many of today’s Apples are not getting a chance?” Perhaps the death of Steve Jobs is the right time to examine this question.
 XEROX’s PARC center deserves a significant amount of credit for inventing the GUI. Unfortunately, the FTC’s absurd attack on XEROX in the early 1970s for being a technological leader caused this great American company to pull back on commercializing a number of great inventions, including Ethernet. This is a shameful history in American government that is being repeated today. For more information see http://hallingblog.com/jobs-the-economy-and-patents/.